Software Terminology

Do not try to learn every single word. You should have understanding and know where to use the terms during an interview or a conversation
What is a TASK?
In QA terminology it means an assignment like a JIRA ticket that has assignee and task description. In JIRA it also has estimates and other fields.
What is a SPRINT?
An iteration in SCRUM development methodology. Usually takes 2 weeks.
In IT this term can be used in positive and negative ways. For positive it means the person or team is doing great and does a lot of work maybe even exceed expectations. Negative - means vice versa doesn't complete enough work in certain amount of time.
Description of features and functionalities of the application. Must be correct, feasible, unambiguous, verifiable and complete.
What is REGRESSION testing?
It is a software testing type when the goal of the testing is to validate the existing functionality is not broken after some changes or after adding new functionality to application.
What is FEATURE?
It's a software functionality. For example: Uber has "Uber pool" feature. The Uber is a big application that has many features including "Uber pool".
What is BACKLOG?
This term from SCRUM and means a list of assignments. There are 2 backlog types: product backlog - related to the whole product and sprint backlog - related only to specific sprint.
Process of getting the software released in time according to release plan, matching deadlines.
It is the application with certain version that is hosted for some specific goal and may have restricted access. Usually there are next environments: DEV -> QA -> PREPROD -> PROD. The names of environments may deffer from company to company.
What is a DEADLINE?
It's a planned finish date that is set for the team to finish with testing and/or development. "Missing a deadline" means we are doing not so good as was planned and should have finished testing and/or development earlier.
What is BUG?
It is a deviation of actual result from expected result when the expected result is taken from software product's requirements.
What is JIRA?
It is issue tracking system, where issue can be a requirement, bug, task etc. The system has tools that helps to implement agile development methodologies.
Who is a company CONSUMER?
It is a company end user who uses the software product.
It is a test the has a goal of validating the build before releasing it to production.
What is GRAY BOX testing?
It is a type of testing based on the knowledge of the system where QA partially knows the backend and can do testing for services, data managers, etc.
Frontend is a part of the system that is used by a product consumer, for example: a web site or mobile app. Backend is the part of the system that is accessible only for engineers within the company. It has services, integrations, databases, etc.